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3 User Experience Frameworks for Creating Better Websites & Apps

May 11, 2017

by Shawn Parrotte

User experience is a "must have" discussion for everyone who has an online presence. But what exactly does "designing a good user experience" mean? Shawn Parrotte of Designli, a software development company, walks you through three UX frameworks that will help you lead effective conversations about website and mobile app design.

Updated October 3, 2023

Apps and websites that are intuitive and engaging have always outshined those that are clunky and confusing. These days, however, consumers expect better experiences from their digital products and design projects than ever before.

Therefore, it’s the ideal time to prioritize user experience (UX) design because brands that leverage exceptional UX and product development will beat those that try to compete on the basis of price or functionality alone. That added design thinking will do wonders.

If you’re a business that personally maintains its digital presence, you simply can’t afford to neglect your website or app’s UX. And if you’re a freelancer or an agency, it’s essential to convince your clients to understand and buy into the importance of UX as a fundamental tenet of the design process.

It’s often said that good design becomes invisible. If so, how do we wrap our heads around designing a good user experience when the nature of UX itself seems ephemeral, to begin with?

Thankfully, UX researchers and designers have been tackling this question for a while now — since at least the 1980s, when it was called Human-Computer Interaction. So, while the task can be tricky, we have some resources for user feedback at our disposal.

In this article, I will share three specific frameworks to guide UX design discussions for websites and mobile apps and recommend when you should use each.

By the time you finish reading, I hope you feel empowered with the tools needed to champion the end user as the central element of your clients’ or your digital assets.

Looking for a UI/UX designer? Check out our shortlist of top UX design agencies and filter by cost, location, and ratings. 

What is UX Design? Understanding Your Users

UX design is about understanding the psychology, habits, moods, and goals of your users and building a digital product that genuinely helps them do what they are trying to do.

Generally speaking, a good UX allows a user to easily and intuitively carry out their intended goals, while a poor UX impedes a user from accomplishing their goals during a user journey.

To drive home the importance of designing products, mobile apps, and websites with the user in mind, a recent survey found that 52% of people said that a bad mobile experience made them less likely to engage with a company in the future.

Stakeholders and their UX team members that overlook their mobile UX may be unwittingly saying to their audience that they are not as consumer-focused as they claim to be.

More fundamentally, they are sending the message that they don’t understand their users and their main pain points.

Introducing Three UX Design Frameworks

Now that we understand what UX is and what UX isn’t, let’s take a look at three frameworks that help organize our thinking around understanding users and designing extraordinary user-centered design experiences for them.

Types of UX Frameworks:

  1. Hierarchy of UX Needs
  2. The UX Honeycomb
  3. The Five Elements of UX Design


UX Framework #1: The Hierarchy of User Experience Needs

This may not be the most popular of the three frameworks in this article, but the Hierarchy of User Experience Needs is probably the easiest to understand and thus a good place to begin.

Similar to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the hierarchy of user experience uses a pyramid shape to indicate the relative importance of various parts of your digital product user experience.

While many leaders in UX design have translated Maslow’s hierarchy to the field, I’m particularly fond of Lyndon Cerejo’s version, first created in 2001. It’s simple, useful, and a great tool to build a solid understanding of the different layers that make up a good user experience.

You can use it to guide a discussion for improving the UX of an existing website or app or as a way to talk about various decisions your clients need to make for their digital assets.

Hierarchy of User Experience Needs

The hierarchy of user experience needs have five parts:

1. Site Availability Layer: You would think that this goes without saying, but when a user isn’t able to access your website or your app can’t reach the APIs it needs, then there’s no experience to be had at all! This is analogous to basic physiological needs, like food and water, in Maslow’s hierarchy.

2. Usability Layer: Some of the questions addressed at this layer include:

  • Are you able to navigate to each section of your website easily?
  • Are the buttons in your app easy to tap?
  • Is all the text legible? Does everything function consistently?

3. Supportive Features Layer: Deals with how you are supporting real users who use your product and encouraging the kinds of interactions that you want for your business goals.

Example questions in this area include:

  • Does your app guide a new user through its primary functionality?
  • Does your online store offer reviews and suggested products?
  • Does your website have a FAQ section or live chat?

4. Confidence Layer: This area is especially important if you are accepting payments through your website or app.

The fundamental issue here is whether your users feel confident enough to invest their time, personal information, or other resources in what you are offering.

For example, if you offer an eBook in exchange for entering an email address, can your users trust that you won’t spam them or sell their addresses to third parties?

If you offer a subscription service through your app, is it easy to unsubscribe later if a user no longer wishes to receive communications?

5. Desirability Layer: This is at the top because before you can focus on creating an attractive user interface with the bells and whistles that you or your users want, your website or app must first be always available, usable, supportive, and trustworthy.

There are many options here, but you want to make sure that anything you do on this layer doesn’t negatively impact the ones below it.

For example, a new feature may be desirable to users but not if it requires large images or JavaScript libraries that greatly increase load time.

Similarly, from a UX design perspective, a drop-down menu that is beautifully animated but difficult to use is no better than an intuitive one without the frills. Empathize that you don’t want to add user problems with any design solution changes. 


UX Framework #2: The UX Honeycomb

The UX Honeycomb is a methodology that breaks down the factors that contribute to a positive user experience into seven main factors.

  • Useful
  • Desirable
  • Accessible
  • Credible
  • Findable
  • Useable
  • Valuable

Honeycomb model of user experience

The UX Honeycomb is a bit more technical than the pyramidal hierarchy of user needs above, and as such, may be better suited for the start of a new project or a redesign, rather than for upgrading or maintaining an existing website or mobile app.

Usable, desirable, credible, and findable are similar to points already covered in the pyramid discussion above (though findable may relate more to navigability than to availability here).

Let’s focus on the three new topics in this graphic.

Useful Hexagon: Prompts us to consider users’ motivations. Why would a user want to interact with your website or app to begin with? And, given that goal, does the site truly allow them to achieve it? Design teams need to consistently iterate on this as objectives and business goals change, especially when your target persona evolves.

For example, most “brochure” type websites are intended to give potential customers information about a business and the products or services it offers. If that’s the goal of the site, but the information is not present or is difficult to find or understand, it’s not useful.

Accessible Hexagon: Refers to designing for accessibility, meaning that the design elements should accommodate individuals that may have disabilities.

For example, someone who is colorblind may not be able to see which field in a web form is generating an error if the only indicator is a red border around the entry. Accessibility is very complex field and is worth investigating to allow greater audience access to what you’re building.

Valuable Hexagon: When all six of the outer factors in the UX Honeycomb are properly addressed, you create something that is truly valuable for your target audience. This ensures that they will keep coming back.


UX Framework #3: The Elements of User Experience

The last model we’ll look at is the most comprehensive – more of a unified theory of user experience than a tool. It is best used to gain a conceptual understanding of how meaning is translated through the design of a digital product.

Jesse James Garrett developed the Elements of User Experience in 2000 to describe a holistic view of UX and to illustrate the context for decisions that user experience practitioners make.

Unified theory of user experience

The distinguishing feature of the model is that the activities of the layers occur at the same time – are concurrent – but are described at different levels of abstraction.

For example, the visual design not only incorporates the characteristics of the aesthetic (Flat vs Flat 2.0) but also the goals of the user (contrasting colors to guide the UX).

Everyone understands the visual aspect of an interface because it’s the most concrete. But other layers, such as information architecture and functional specifications, are always happening, just under the surface.

Let’s look at each layer briefly.

Layer 1: Site Objectives & User Needs

At the bottom, we have the dual-layer of Site Objectives and User Needs, which sometimes are in alignment, and sometimes are not.

Consider how many times you’ve been interrupted while reading a website to sign up for an email newsletter, a subscription service, or some other kind of “exclusive offering.”

Clearly, in these cases, the site’s designer decided that the company’s objectives were more important than the user’s needs. This is a balancing act, especially if you’re trying to make money directly from the website or app – you need to ask for the sale, but without alienating your users.

Layer 2: Content Requirements & Functional Specifications

The next level contains Content Requirements and Functional Specifications. Content, believe it or not, is also a component of UX — the types and amount of content on your site or app will determine how to organize the layout for the best user experience.

Many people advocate for content-first design, opting out of the standard Lorem Ipsum (and its many variants) in favor of real or high-quality content intended for use.

Functional Specifications refer to how the content will be delivered and their intuitiveness. 

We now have many devices with various screen sizes and limitations: TVs, desktops, tablets, phablets, phones, smartwatches, and now virtual reality headsets as well. Which of these will you prioritize? How will you manage layout and user flows when rendering for multiple outputs that may be very different?

Layer 3: Information Architecture & Interaction Design

The middle layer contains Information Architecture and Interaction Design, two disciplines with too much complexity to cover here. In a nutshell, they ask the question: How is all the information organized, and how can you interact with it all?

Layer 4: Interface, Navigation & Information Design

Next up, Interface Design, Navigation Design, and Information Design. The first two are pretty self-explanatory.

Information design is the practice of presenting information in a way that fosters its efficient and effective understanding.

Interface, navigation, and information are combined to create the wireframes that most people understand as the deliverables of the UX or UI design process.

Layer 5: Visual Design

Finally, on top, is the part that everyone loves: the Visual Design layer. This is where we wrap up all of the design and work from the lower layers with appealing graphical design.

Use the Right UX Framework for Your Project

The three frameworks presented in this article represent different ways of understanding the problems present in user experience design and offer pre-established approaches for how to begin solving them.

Each model touches on different aspects of UX, and each has its own approach that can add significant value to the UX design process.

For example, you may wish to use one model, like the Elements of User Experience Design, internally for discussing projects with your team and another, like the Hierarchy of User Experience Needs, to aid with decisions related to client projects.

Whatever approach you choose, there’s something in each framework to guide productive conversations about how users experience digital products.

Every conversation we have about UX makes the Internet a better place.

Additional Reading

About the Author

Shawn Parrotte, Marketing Manager at Designli

Shawn Parrotte is the Marketing Manager of Designli, a software development agency specializing in delivering transparency and certainty to the world of custom mobile apps and web applications.

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