Public Relations, Media Training & Crisis Comms

Trusted PR, led by award-winning journalist Leisa Goddard and a team of former senior journalists and communication specialists who know what the media need to promote and protect your brand and tell your story.

With offices in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, Adoni Media works with national and international corporates (see reviews) as well as Government, military, charity and a range of SMEs and start-ups.

  • Campaigns have delivered millions of dollars in media coverage
  • Awarded and recognised for one of Australia's best Govt Relations campaigns
  • Preferred Media Trainer of Governments, CEOs, military, charities and industry leaders
  • Proven success with Crisis Communication planning and response 

Adoni Media specialises in campaigns that build brand awareness, trust and authority. Adoni has, and does, work with Fortune 500 and ASX listed companies and Leisa Goddard and her senior team are trusted advisors on media messaging and presentation.

Driving Adoni Media's impressive success is the team's decades of media experience and network of media contacts.

Leisa Goddard has spent 30 years in the Australian media as a news reporter and foreign correspondent with Network Ten, on-air reporter for 9 and 7 and  investigative reporter for A Current Affair and Today Tonight. Leisa has worked for Sunrise and continues to be a commentator on the Sky News channel.

Leisa founded Adoni Media because she believed PR could be done better.

Adoni Media's clients regularly appear in the news. One client earned media coverage with an ad value of more than $2.2 million in just 4 months. 

 
Undisclosed
 
$200 - $300 / hr
 
10 - 49
 Founded
2012
Show all +
Brisbane, Australia
headquarters
  • Adoni Media Level 5, 196 Wharf Street
    Brisbane, QLD 4000
    Australia
other locations
  • Adoni Media Level 5, 196 Wharf Street
    Sydney 2000
    Australia
  • Level 28 140 St Georges Terrace
    Perth, WA 6000
    Australia

Portfolio

Key clients: 
For client's it is about trusting the experience behind the advice they are being given. Adoni Media's clients have included Fortune 500 companies such as resource giant Glencore, ASX-listed corporates, national franchises, Government departments and regulatory bodies, The Navy and national charities.  Adoni assisted in launching the $100m Sydney Coliseum Theatre (2019), created and managed one of Aust's Best Government Relations campaigns, Your Health Your Choice (2017). Supported tourism for the 2018 Royal Visit.

Reviews

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The Salvation Army Christmas & Red Shield Appeals

"We've established a relationship that will bear much fruit over the coming years."

Quality: 
5.0
Schedule: 
5.0
Cost: 
5.0
Willing to refer: 
5.0
The Project
 
Less than $10,000
 
Nov. 2019 - June 2020
Project summary: 

In support of two charity campaigns, Adoni Media bolstered a nonprofit's PR initiatives. Their responsibilities were to pitch stories to local media, get traction on mainstream media, and raise awareness.

The Reviewer
 
5,001-10,000 Employees
 
Brisbane, Australia
Simon Gregory
PR Secretary, The Salvation Army Australia
 
Verified
The Review
Feedback summary: 

Adoni Media leveraged their extensive contact network to grow the nonprofit's media engagement and encourage engagement. One particular highlight was a Christmas TV spot that helped spur increased toy donations. Adoni Media was professional, hardworking, and budget-friendly.

The client submitted this review online.

BACKGROUND

Please describe your company and your position there.

The Salvation Army Australia is an international Christian movement, united by faith and giving hope where it’s needed most. Across Australia – in cities, country towns and rural communities – our work touches every demographic and age group.

We’re involved in national issues while also bringing hope to people who may be experiencing hardship or injustice.

As the Public Relations Secretary in Queensland, I am responsible for Fundraising (including The Red Shield Appeal), Media & Government Relations, Branding & Marketing, Internal & External Communications and Editorial functions in Queensland

OPPORTUNITY / CHALLENGE

For what projects/services did your company hire Adoni Media?

The Salvation Army hired Adoni Media to support us in the promotion of both the Christmas Appeal in late 2019 and the Red Shield Appeal in 2020.

SOLUTION

How did you select this vendor?

My predecessor had recommended engaging with Leisa Goddard and Adoni Media for future campaign promotion. I knew Leisa's work with Channels 7 and 10 and after a brief meeting with her, I was convinced that Adoni was the right fit for what we needed, and that Adoni wanted to partner with us to see great outcomes for people doing it tough.

Describe the scope of their work in detail.

The brief to Adoni Media was threefold:

  1. Help pitch local stories to local media outlets
  2. Get traction on our main research piece in mainstream media
  3. Help us get the word out about our new Digital Doorknock
RESULTS & FEEDBACK

Can you share any outcomes from the project that demonstrate progress or success?

Adoni were able to help us grow our media engagement via their extensive contacts throughout the QLD media landscaps and we experienced growth in the number of opportunities we received to share about our Christmas and Red Shield Appeal campaigns.

Our National Media team was extremely happy with the results we received for the money that was spent.

A particular highlight was during our Christmas campaign, when it became clear that we were seeing a significant drop in toy donations due to the recent Bushfire crisis, Adoni were able to secure opportunities for us to tell our story on TV news, long-form radio interview and in the print media.

How effective was the workflow between your team and theirs?

Leisa and her team is professional, connected, prepared to get to know you and your business and work hard to open up opportunities to tell your story.

What did you find most impressive about this company?

Adoni have also above and beyond to help us stretch our dollar as far as possible and I believe that we've established a relationship that will bear much fruit over the coming years as we continue to work closely together.

5.0
Overall Score
  • 5.0 Scheduling
    ON TIME / DEADLINES
    Leisa and Jenna were always available and willing to be approached with ideas at any time.
  • 5.0 Cost
    Value / within estimates
    Being a not-for-profit, Adoni offered us reduced rates, but still provided us with quality service.
  • 5.0 Quality
    Service & deliverables
    Nothing was too much trouble and they were able to present us with a myriad of opportunities to tell our story
  • 5.0 NPS
    Willing to refer
    I've not come across another media agency that worked so hard or cared so much about seeing us succeed.

PR for Transport & Logistics Insurer

"Having former journalists work with our internal team enables us to achieve coverage, angles, and VNR outcomes."

Quality: 
4.0
Schedule: 
4.0
Cost: 
4.0
Willing to refer: 
5.0
The Project
 
$50,000 to $199,999
 
June 2020 - Ongoing
Project summary: 

Adoni Media is assisting in maximizing the reach of PR efforts and seeking out PR opportunities for a transport and logistics insurer. They work on campaigns, content, and digital work and help train as well.

The Reviewer
 
201-500 Employees
 
Australia
Amy Vining
Content Team Leader, Specialist Insurer
 
Verified
The Review
Feedback summary: 

Adoni Media's work so far has contributed to an increase in PR activity and media releases. Their workflow is effective and they collaborate well with the client as one team. With a monthly WIP, they work seamlessly.

The client submitted this review online.

BACKGROUND

Please describe your company and your position there.

We are Australia's leading transport and logistics insurer, offering specialised insurance and risk management tools across five different brands. My position is the Content Team Leader and in this role, I oversee all content materials that are distributed to our customers, partners, and industry.

OPPORTUNITY / CHALLENGE

For what projects/services did your company hire Adoni Media?

As we are a small marketing team we hired Adoni Media to come onboard on a monthly retainer basis to assist with maximising the reach of our PR efforts and seeking out PR opportunities.

What were your goals for this project?

To ramp up our PR activity and to broaden our reach into the mainstream media rather than purely focusing on industry publications.

SOLUTION

How did you select this vendor?

The team had worked on a campaign basis with Adoni in the past and were extremely happy with their work.

Describe the scope of their work in detail.

Adoni work with our team to assess PR opportunities from our various projects, campaigns, content, and digital work being completed in house. We also rely on the Adoni team to keep across industry news in order to be able to offer our experts up for comment to media when applicable. They also help train and prepare internal experts for media opportunities.

What was the team composition?

We work extremely closely with Adoni Managing Director, Leisa Goddard, and Clare Christensen, Communications Director. While other team members have also been involved on our account across our time working collaboratively together, Leisa and Clare have remained our consistent points of contact.

RESULTS & FEEDBACK

Can you share any outcomes from the project that demonstrate progress or success?

Recently Adoni helped execute our most successful NTARC Report launch. However, success for us when looking back on our time working with Adoni is the huge increase in our PR activity alone. During FY20 we have sent out more than 30 media releases with Adoni's help to both industry media, and mainstream media. Without their help, this would not have been possible.

How effective was the workflow between your team and theirs?

With a monthly WIP we are able to work seamlessly as one team.

What did you find most impressive about this company?

Having former journalists work with our internal team enables us to achieve coverage, angles, and VNR outcomes that would otherwise be impossible if we were to do this work solely in-house.

Are there any areas for improvement?

No, there are none.

4.0
Overall Score
  • 4.0 Scheduling
    ON TIME / DEADLINES
  • 4.0 Cost
    Value / within estimates
  • 4.0 Quality
    Service & deliverables
  • 5.0 NPS
    Willing to refer

PR Campaign & Content Generation for Donut Burger

"Their content and production quality was solid as was their ability to generate and deliver local and national PR."

Quality: 
4.0
Schedule: 
4.0
Cost: 
4.0
Willing to refer: 
5.0
The Project
 
$10,000 to $49,999
 
Feb. - Mar. 2020
Project summary: 

Adoni Media led a PR campaign to generate excitement around a donut burger. In the first phase, they focused on taste tester feedback. The second phase involved journalist outreach, news spots, and conferences.

The Reviewer
 
51-200 Employees
 
Perth, Australia
David Harrison
Head of Marketing, Chicken Treat
 
Verified
The Review
Feedback summary: 

Adoni Media diligently coordinated the campaign, working to produce strong content to prepare for the product launch. Within two weeks, the team secured 30 stories with an audience reach of near 900,000 people, including some international attention. The total coverage was worth about $108,000 USD.

The client submitted this review online.

BACKGROUND

Please describe your company and your position there.

I'm Head of Marketing at Chicken Treat, an iconic Australian chicken brand with a network of over 55 stores across the country. SInce 1976 we've been serving up lip smacking rotisserie chicken, burgers, fried chicken and sides for those in need of a 'soul food saviour.'

OPPORTUNITY / CHALLENGE

For what projects/services did your company hire Adoni Media?

Being an unconventional brand we like to offer items you can't buy at other restaurants. Food trends show people are obsessed with Frankenfood creations so our strategy was to create an Australian-first – a donut burger using our full breast fillet, two donuts to replace the bun, and a delicious combination of cola BBQ sauce and cheese to offer dinner and dessert in one bite.

What were your goals for this project?

Create hype and excitement to persuade fast food lovers to visit Chicken Treat during the stunt campaign period and purchase a donut burger. Surprise and delight our customers with an unique taste experience.

SOLUTION

How did you select this vendor?

Adoni had produced on our 'Chicken Heroes' brand repositioning project but never on a menu campaign so we keen to see if they could deliver similar results for the Donut Burger.

Describe the scope of their work in detail.

Adoni structured a campaign to create two different news hits.

PHASE ONE: WA’s greatest job Create a news opportunity in the lead up to the product launch to create hype around it.

We decided to hire four 'burger taste testers' to help put the finishing touches on the product before it appeared in stores. It was the perfect opportunity to create a news story about “Western Australia’s greatest job”.

The job ad went live and hours later, our media release was sent. It attracted coverage far and wide, starting with a minute and a half on WA’s leading news organisation, Channel 7 News at both 4pm and 6pm and gained extensive online attention across Western Australia. Social media had a blast with it and the coverage attracted almost a thousand job applications in just three days.

Clearly there was interest in this new product, even though it was clouded in secrecy. We hadn’t revealed what the tasters were testing, just stating it was a new burger set to launch in a fortnight.

PHASE TWO: The donut burger launches On the same day the donut burger launched to market, we created a media event. Journalists were invited to a Chicken Treat restaurant where they could interview CEO Mimma Battista and speak to the two successful applicants of the “Greatest Job in WA”. They would also have an opportunity to get photographs and vision of the donut burger and try it for themselves.

We also organised to shoot a Video News Release so we could send the story to regional areas across WA and in Queensland where Chicken Treat restaurants are located. It led to coverage across both States, including these two TV stories which aired in Bunbury and Rockhampton.

As well as localised stories, journalists love controversy and the donut burger happened to launch the same day the Australian Medical Association held a media conference about obesity. The burger prompted some lively comment from the head of the AMA which just led to more conversation and further coverage across news media.

The story featured in all three metro commercial television networks and regional TV news, had a near-full page in the West Australian newspaper with a great photo, and numerous online articles which ran nationally and internationally.

We also arranged for the burgers to be delivered to talkback radio station 6PR so the Drive presenter and producers could try it on air. Social media hailed the launch of the burger “marketing genius” and the extensive media coverage ensured people knew about the Donut burger (which quickly sold out as a result).

It also created long-lasting brand recognition for Chicken Treat and solidified its personality as a “jester brand”, one that has fun and creates quirky products that people love to talk about.

What was the team composition?

The Adoni team was led by Sarah Best, Communications Manager in WA on the ground, supported by Leisa, Addoni Managing Director. The Chicken Treat team was Senior Brand Manager Andrea Slinger and CEO Mimma Battista supported by our marketing and operations team.

RESULTS & FEEDBACK

Can you share any outcomes from the project that demonstrate progress or success?

In two weeks, we achieved 30 stories, with an audience reach of more than 882,000 people across Western Australia and Queensland. The story even attracted international attention from London’s Daily Mail. The coverage was worth more than $115,000.

How effective was the workflow between your team and theirs?

The project required a lot of coordination and meetings given the amount of stakeholders. Adoni were very thorough with their process and communication with our team to bring the project together.

What did you find most impressive about this company?

Their content and production quality was solid as was their ability to generate and deliver local and national PR across the pre-launch and launch phases.

Are there any areas for improvement?

We were very satisfied with their work.

4.0
Overall Score
  • 4.0 Scheduling
    ON TIME / DEADLINES
  • 4.0 Cost
    Value / within estimates
  • 4.0 Quality
    Service & deliverables
  • 5.0 NPS
    Willing to refer

Media Relations Services for Solo Atlantic Ocean Rower

"I loved working with a talented team of women who each met every task with genuine interest, care, and concern."

Quality: 
5.0
Schedule: 
5.0
Cost: 
5.0
Willing to refer: 
5.0
The Project
 
$50,000 to $199,999
 
June 2018 - Ongoing
Project summary: 

Adoni Media offered media relations services for an adventurer. This involved producing a podcast and setting up interviews with newspapers as well as television and radio shows.

The Reviewer
 
1-10 Employees
 
Kellyville, Australia
Michelle Lee
Adventurer, Michelle Lee Solo Ocean Rower
 
Verified
The Review
Feedback summary: 

The vendor’s efforts cultivated significant awareness of the client’s adventure, resulting in 217 media items. The media exposure reached 3.5 million people with advertising sales of $1.3 million. Adoni Media is a credible, talented team that’s truly invested in their client’s success. 

The client submitted this review online.

BACKGROUND

Please describe your company and your position there.

I was an unknown adventurer with a story to tell. I required media coverage for the purpose of exposure, which led to building a profile.

OPPORTUNITY / CHALLENGE

For what projects/services did your company hire Adoni Media?

As a solo upcoming adventurer, new to the world of media, press releases, interviews and connections, I needed a tried, tested and proven media team, who had my best interest at heart. I was naïve, green, untrained and clueless in the arena of media. The Adoni Media team - led by Leissa Goddard, were warmly welcomed by me to source pre and post interviews, gain exposure and to begin to build a profile.

What were your goals for this project?

I wanted to secure exposure on prime TV, newspapers and magazines to introduce me to the Australian population to inspire and motivate them to tap into their own untapped potential.

SOLUTION

How did you select this vendor?

I was lucky enough to secure a one on one meeting with Leisa, after a warm introduction from a one of her happy clients.

Describe the scope of their work in detail.

After several one on one's and briefings over the phone, Leisa and her team devised a plan to produce a podcast to include interviews with my personal friends and sponsors. After an awesome introductory interview, following interviews were then to released in stages - during my row across the Atlantic ocean. This kept the public engagement active. There were several interviews with newspapers including The Australian, prior to my actual departure. The interviews post row - were booked back to back on a tight schedule, managed by Adoni Media. The first interview took place just several hours of me stepping ashore, after 68 days at sea. Coverage included live crossovers from Antigua during prime time slots with Sunrise, Today show, ABC TV. There was a host of radio interviews for leading stations - ABC, The Alan Jones Show and others. Later, magazine stories were secured by Adoni with Prevention magazine, Hills to Hawkesbury and That's Life. We also enjoyed a live slot with Alan Jones on Jones and Co - skye as well as Studio 10.

What was the team composition?

The beauty of my Adoni team was consistency. With warm, engaging and efficient crews made of 4, I was looked after, guided and mentored during the whole process.

RESULTS & FEEDBACK

Can you share any outcomes from the project that demonstrate progress or success?

This project equated to an enormous amount of exposure across all major medians. 217 media items, audience reach of 3.5 million people with an advertising sales rate of $1.3 million. These figures blew me away and superseded my expectations by a long shot. The outcome of the figures increased my exposure locally, nationally and internationally.

How effective was the workflow between your team and theirs?

Management of my project was handled over the phone and via emails. They exercised flexibility to fit in with my schedule and were always interested in how I felt with the process, along the way.

What did you find most impressive about this company?

I was amazed constantly at the connections and industry relationships they have, which said a lot to me about the credibility and reputation. I loved working with a talented team of women who each met every task with genuine interest, care and concern about the objectives and our goals. I simply would not go anywhere else for my PR needs. They even helped me out on some personal matters with sound advice and again, sincere concern - for my well being.

Are there any areas for improvement?

For me - I wouldn't change a thing. I felt completely safe in the Adoni Media team hands. Professional, confident and savvy operators who do it so seemingly easy to my naked eye. I was aware of the logistical challenges to tee up my post race interviews and the coordination of locking in every interview. They had time zones to contend with - which they did with a smile every time.

5.0
Overall Score An altogether savvy, fun and competent team, with your best interest at heart.
  • 5.0 Scheduling
    ON TIME / DEADLINES
    done with ease, confidence and clarity
  • 5.0 Cost
    Value / within estimates
    Adoni generously sponsored my campaign and gave of their expertise by loving my story and believing in me.
  • 5.0 Quality
    Service & deliverables
    The results speak for themselves. Reputation and credibility were constantly being proven.
  • 5.0 NPS
    Willing to refer
    without hesitation.

Digital Marketing & Media Training for Driver Service

"…their experienced team provides innovative solutions with consistency and gusto."

Quality: 
5.0
Schedule: 
5.0
Cost: 
5.0
Willing to refer: 
5.0
The Project
 
$10,000 to $49,999
 
Aug. 2018 - Ongoing
Project summary: 

Adoni Media provided and implemented a digital marketing strategy to broaden brand awareness, improve SEO, and increase app downloads. The team also led internal media training sessions.

The Reviewer
 
11-50 Employees
 
Brisbane, Australia
Craig Glover
Chief Executive Officer, WeDrive Pty Ltd.
 
Verified
The Review
Feedback summary: 

App download numbers beat expectations, and the site achieved top ranking in search results. Adoni Media demonstrates professionalism, in-depth knowledge, and dedication at every turn. They meet every deadline and budget and remain accessible to inquiries. They now provide support services.

The client submitted this review online.

BACKGROUND

Please describe your company and your position there.

I’m the CEO of WeDrive Pty Ltd, an app-based client and vehicle transfer service.

OPPORTUNITY / CHALLENGE

For what projects/services did your company hire Adoni Media?

We wanted to improve our website’s visibility through SEO, provide relevant content to our users, and recruit more drivers to meet increased client demand. Our leadership also required media training to prepare for future growth. We engaged Adoni Media to provide digital marketing strategy and training services for our team.

What were your goals for this project?

We are looking to expand our brand into new markets with the goal of going national. We wanted a digital marketing partner that would produce ad campaigns for us on a regular basis.

SOLUTION

How did you select this vendor?

I reached out to multiple local vendors, and none of them had the right feel for a potential partnership. We needed someone who’d work with our small size and budget without sacrificing service. When we met with Leisa (Founder and Managing Director, Adoni Media) and her team, they brainstormed innovative yet realistic solutions to our problems on the spot. That and their professionalism impressed us from the beginning.

Describe the scope of their work in detail.

We first held meetings to make our company focus and project goals as clear as possible. Adoni Media then provided plans for a series of ad campaigns with specific timelines and budgets. The team designed these campaigns to broaden brand awareness, grow our client base, and increase our driver recruitment efforts. They combined digital and traditional marketing efforts into an integrated strategy. Once we approved it, Adoni Media implemented the ad campaign. We continue to use their digital strategy services.

For media training, Adoni Media utilized an in-house cameraman to give our leadership team real-world experience. Our leadership gained the confidence to handle future media encounters. Adoni Media also provides support on small issues. When the ‘Book Now’ function on our site failed—and our web developer was not available—their team jumped in and fixed it immediately.

What was the team composition?

We work with a variety of in-house experts ranging from content writers and SEO specialists to front- and backend developers and media presenters.

RESULTS & FEEDBACK

Can you share any outcomes from the project that demonstrate progress or success?

App downloads increased beyond expectations, and our site has achieved first ranking organically in search engines results. We’ve broadened our brand awareness, bringing in requests from areas we haven’t even reached out to yet. We attribute that success directly to Adoni Media’s efforts.

How effective was the workflow between your team and theirs?

Adoni Media organizes each project into clear workflows, allowing both teams to tailor and tweak as needed. They adhere to our budgets and deadlines. I can also reach out to their team members at any time—even for face-to-face meetings—to discuss strategies and timelines.

What did you find most impressive about this company?

I admire the team’s in-depth knowledge and willingness to share it. They’re more than happy to explain their ideas in layperson’s terms and empower us to take full advantage of their strategies.

Are there any areas for improvement?

I would have preferred faster results at times, but Adoni Media consistently delivers high-quality work within their projected timeframes.

5.0
Overall Score Adoni Media is a pleasure to work with; their experienced team provides innovative solutions with consistency and gusto.
  • 5.0 Scheduling
    ON TIME / DEADLINES
    They provide realistic timeframes and never miss a deadline.
  • 5.0 Cost
    Value / within estimates
    Adoni Media produces stellar results at competitive rates.
  • 5.0 Quality
    Service & deliverables
    They provide professional service and thorough work that exceeds expectations.
  • 5.0 NPS
    Willing to refer
    I regularly recommend them to colleagues and friends.

Media Training & Video for Tourism Operator

“This has been one of the highest ROI contracts I have engaged in my career.”

Quality: 
5.0
Schedule: 
5.0
Cost: 
5.0
Willing to refer: 
5.0
The Project
 
$10,000 to $49,999
 
Sept. 2018
Project summary: 

Adoni Media conducted training on media relations and interview skills in preparation for a high-profile event. They also filmed and edited a video news release.

The Reviewer
 
201-500 Employees
 
Fraser Island, Australia
Monique Parker
Director of Marketing & Communications, Kingfisher Bay Resort Group
 
Verified
The Review
Feedback summary: 

Adoni Media’s training resulted in increased media coverage and successful interviews. Their expertise, accuracy, and flexibility set them apart in the industry.

The client submitted this review online.

BACKGROUND

Please describe your company and your position there.

I’m the director of marketing and communications at a tourism company.

OPPORTUNITY / CHALLENGE

For what projects/services did your company hire Adoni Media?

We hired them to provide media training for our executive leadership, who would manage a press pack of over 170 persons associated with the official royal visit to Fraser Island.   

What were your goals for this project?

Our goal was to increase media coverage and improve our ability to manage media interviews.

SOLUTION

How did you select this vendor?

We found them on LinkedIn.

Describe the scope of their work in detail.

Adoni Media provided on-camera media training, interview skills, and general advice regarding media relations. They also filmed and edited a video news release for distribution to the major networks.

What was the team composition?

We worked with a media trainer, a camera person, and a video editor.

RESULTS & FEEDBACK

Can you share any outcomes from the project that demonstrate progress or success?

Our business has received ongoing benefits from engaging Adoni Media for this project. We had successful media interviews, increased media coverage, and new presentation techniques and manuals. This has been one of the highest ROI contracts I have engaged in my career. I would recommend Adoni Media's services to any company or spokesperson looking to take their media and PR game to the next level.

How effective was the workflow between your team and theirs?

It was excellent.

What did you find most impressive about this company?

Leisa (Managing Director, Adoni Media) is a total pro who executes with precision at lightning speed. She is a dream to work with and can relate to leaders at all levels.

Are there any areas for improvement?

There’s nothing to improve, but we definitely want more follow-up services. Perhaps they could have offerings for younger PR members in a team.

5.0
Overall Score
  • 5.0 Scheduling
    ON TIME / DEADLINES
  • 5.0 Cost
    Value / within estimates
  • 5.0 Quality
    Service & deliverables
  • 5.0 NPS
    Willing to refer